Sunday, 29 January 2012



The North-South divide is not an exact line, but one that can involve many stereotypes, presumptions and other impressions of the surrounding region relative to other regions.
The existence of the North-South divide is fiercely contested. Some sources claim it exists but also that it is even expanding. For example, a report in 2001 found that North East England, North West England and Scotland had poorer health levels than South.
The same data have been interpreted otherwise to indicate only a very small difference.
Indeed, results are highly dependent on the categories chosen for evaluation. As a generalisation, the following tend to indicate that there is some sort of north-south divide:
  • Health conditions, which are generally seen as being worse in the north though spending on health care is higher 
  • House prices, which are higher in the south, particularly the south-east.
  • Earnings, which are higher in the south and east.
  • Government expenditure, which is higher (both in gross terms and relative to tax revenues) in the north.
  • Political influence.
However, many middle-class and affluent areas are located near Manchester, Leeds and Edinburgh. A report into wealth by Barclays Bank also highlighted the anomaly that the second-wealthiest parliamentary constituency after Kensington and Chelsea is actually Sheffield Hallam.
This has led some commentators to suggest that other divisions, such as class or ethnicity might be more important.
There is also controversy as to what constitutes the South given that it extends much farther horizontally than the North of the country; some commentators have placed the West Country (in this case, Bristol, Somerset, Devon and Cornwall) into a region of its own because the poverty in some of these areas is often as widepsread as it is in the North, and political support is also focused on the usually widespread Liberal Democrats.–South_divide_in_the_United_Kingdom

Yorkshire termDefinition
bad 'unno good
badlynot in a good state of health, i.e.'How's Martha?', 'She's badly.'
bagginpacked lunch
bagseychildhood term, i.e. 'bagsey my turn!'
bait/ bait boxsnack/ packed lunch
bapbread bun
bazzerkingrelaxing/ telling off (?)
beefin(g), blubberin(g)crying
be reightit'll be alright
best y' dosee that you do
black bright, black as't face o' spadesvery dirty
brantsteep e.g. "'tis a brant hill"
bray/brayingbeating e.g. "you'll get a good braying" or "I'll bray you"
breadcakebread roll or bap

  • Cab (Taxi) - Andy McNab
  • Cab (Taxi) - Flounder And Dab
  • Cab (Taxi) - Sherbet Dab
  • Cadge (Borrow) - Coat And Badge
  • Cake - Sexton Blake
  • Can (Prison or Wall Safe) - Peter Pan
  • Candle - Harry Randall
  • Candle - Saucepan Handle
  • Car - Jam Jar
  • Car (Esp. Flash One) - Danny Marr
  • Card - Bladder Of Lard
  • Carling (Beer) - Roger Starling
  • Cash - Arthur Ashe
  • Cash - Bangers And Mash
  • Cash - Oscar Asche
  • Cash - Sausage And Mash
  • Cat - Brown Hat
  • Cat - This And That
  • Cell (Prison) - Flowery Dell
  • Chair - Lion's Lair
  • Chalk - Duke Of York
  • Chancer - Bengal Lancer
  • Chapel - Pineapple

Saturday, 28 January 2012


The project began as a conversation between a northerner and a southerner about stereotypes of people and places both in the North and South of England, the North/South divide.
The outcome of that conversation created a book with an interestingly interactive experience for the reader and also forces them to review their perception as they constantly flick from perception to reality.

Tuesday, 24 January 2012


'Advertising doesn't sell things; all advertising does is change the way people think or feel' (Jeremy Bullmore).  Evaluate this statement with reference to selected critical theories (past and present).

In this modern day consumer culture that we live in, advertising has become a significantly growing influence over the public, arguably being the most dominant medium of the 21st century.  Bullmore's statement suggests he feels this constant, over whelming influx of advertising influences today’s society into changing the way people feel about themselves and their lifestyles.  It creates desires that audiences don't particularly need but are pressured into thinking they do because of the persuasive nature of the advert. This leads me to conclude that the audience is buying into the idealistic prospect of the product as opposed to its practicality.   It is difficult, however, to apply this notion to the statement as its somewhat contradictory, regardless as to whether it changes the way people think or feel, the product still sells.

Advertisers never claim that one needs the product to have the lifestyle conveyed in the advert but subtly manipulates the target group in to believing it is needed to gain that lifestyle.  A key element of an adverts appeal is to play on what is considered to be the 'perfect' way of life, stereotyping who people want to be.  A prime example of this is the use of celebrities.  Instantly recognisable famous people who are currently regularly appearing in the media, having said that, the person endorsing the product doesn't necessarily have to be universally recognised, only amongst the target group.  An advertiser would be selective about the person chosen to endorse the product depending on the aspirations of the audience that they feel the product is aimed at.  An example of an advert using the concept of consumer ideology is 'Chanel No.5' featuring actress Audrey Tatou.  Tatou is seen, in the public eye, as someone who radiates class, and as expected the stylistic nature of the advert reflects this.   The advert explores the theme of passionate lust which is encapsulated by the silent intensity between the man and the woman, a lust that one would expect to see in a film that is viewed by the target audience for this product.  This makes it appeal to its audience on two levels, one paints a picture of the way of life that someone may long for, yet the only thing accessible from it is the product, giving them a fragment of that lifestyle for them to then build upon.  The second plays on an individuals sense of vanity, the viewer will project an image of themselves as the female figure in the advertisement, who is seen by society as desirable, and in order to achieve this heighten premise of desirability, can gain it through the acquisition of this product.  John Berger (1972) writes in 'Ways of Seeing' 'one could put it this way: the publicity image steals her love of herself as she is, and offers it back to her for the price of the product.'

An advert will use the same method of manipulation with two contrasting advertisements that could be aimed at completely separate audiences, however they both use the medium of sexual desire in order to entice their consumer.  For example an advert that is targeted at a teenage male wouldn't display the passionate lust that is depicted in a fragrance advert but more of a derogatory leering of the females around him.  In the 'Lynx Shower Gel advert: Do the Wash' it shows a young man on a beach using the product and the sheer scent triggers multiple attractive females to lustfully surround him.  They choose not to use a conventionally attractive male figure but instead a more relatable one, as a teenager’s general outlook of themselves will lack more confidence than that of an adult man.  Once the audience can relate to a character, it is then in the hands of the advertisers to manipulate the public into believing that this product can better you.  In contrast, the 'Hugo Boss' advert featuring Ryan Reynolds, appeals to a more complacent male adult.  The advert shows no development of passion nor is there any teenage promiscuity, or chase as seen in the 'Chanel No. 5' advert.  Reynolds possessions are instantly seen with a sophisticated modern panoramic view penthouse, the dominant figure gazes out of the window almost basking in his own success. His love interest is seen undressing as he stands there effortlessly drawing all of her sexual attention towards him.  

The approach for both male and female fragrance adverts are similar with a small difference, again both playing on vanity.  In the 'Chanel' advert the female audience is envious of Tatou and what she represents.  Focusing on Tatou's empowerment, what she can achieve and what is drawn to her, enhancing the envy for Tatou and the product itself.  Whereas a male aftershave advert, the man is already empowered, and the audiences yearning derives from what the man possess rather than idolising the figure himself.  Berger (1972) writes 'It offers him an image of himself made glamourous by the product or opportunity it is trying to sell.  The image then makes him envious of himself as he might be.'

A technique advertisers have to incorporate to maintain credibility is to constantly refer to the past and what the future attributes will hold.  The company, Apple is a prime example of a brand that claims their latest model is a revolution to society, yet its overshadowed by the upgraded version released a year later almost making it redundant.  It focuses on the previous attributes of its former product and the current significance of its latest upgraded model.

It is easy to buy into the false promises because we are constantly surrounded by the visual images that publicly promote consumer goods.  Advertising has become a part of modern day culture, it appeals to the masses and so makes the individual feel pressured into conforming to the trend, that is now day to day life.  Berger (1972) writes 'We are now so accustomed to being addressed by these images that we scarcely notice their total impact.'  And Sut Jhally (1990) concurs through 'The Codes of Advertising' 'Satisfaction is measured against a social scale, or an average standard.  As a society gets richer and more goods are available to a wider group of people, so the average standard also rises and the 'level' of satisfaction remains stable.'

I agree with the statement Bullmore presents to a certain extent, advertisements subliminally disguise the simple intention of them selling a product for no more than financial gain under the guise of a false promise and friendly aid.  However, saying this, the purchasing of the product may superficially give the consumer a sense of materialistic fulfillment. This s a double edged sword, the product may give a sense of whatever the buyer was hoping for but it may not be in the way the advert was suggesting. Adverts can greatly manipulate the way people think and feel, by focusing on people’s insecurities and using them to believe in their product.  It uses their own sense of vanity and self projection and lures them into believing the qualities of the person portrayed in the advertisements can be achieved.  It is because of this, the public feels obligated to possess these otherwise unnecessary commodities.  Furthermore it proves, through changing the way people think and feel, advertising does sell.  Berger (1972) writes from 'Ways of Seeing' 'Capitalism survives by forcing the majority, whom it exploits, to define their own interests as narrowly as possible.  This was once achieved by extensive deprivation.  Today in the developed countries it is being achieved by imposing a false standard of what is and what is not desirable.'

Saturday, 21 January 2012


I found these albums redesigned as Pelican books, which I thought looked quite good and maybe I could draw some ideas for my modern day designs transformed into sixties style:

Monday, 16 January 2012


Because of the psychological response, the eye can be 'fooled' into seeing the full range of visible colours through the proportionate adjustments of just three colours, red, green and blue.

-Contrast of tone
-Contrast of hue
-Contrast of saturation
-Contrast of extension
-Contrast of temperature 
-Complimentary contrasts 
-Simultaneous contrasts

Formed by the juxtaposition of light and dark values.  This could be monochromatic

Formed by the juxtaposing of different hues, the greater the distance between hues on a colour wheel, the greater the contrast.
Formed by the juxtaposition of light and dark values and their relative situations

Sunday, 15 January 2012


Chromatic value= hue + tone + saturation 


Colour and Colour theory represents one of the fundamental principles of Graphic Design and Visual Literacy. This site inntroduces some ot the key terms that a designer needs to be aware of when starting to analyse the use of colour and understand the theories and practices involved when discussing colour.

Primary Colors:

This definition really depends on what type of medium of color we are using. The colors that are seen when sunlight is split by a prism are sometimes called the spectral colors. These are red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. These ROYGBIV colors are often reduced to three "red, green, and blue-violet" which are the primary colors for the additive color system (light). The primary colors for the subtractive color system (paint/pigment) are "cyan, magenta and yellow." Notice that "red, yellow and blue" should never be used as the combination for color primaries!


Secondary colours result from the mixing of two of the primary colours. Red (magenta) and yellow produce orange, yellow and blue (cyan) produce green while red and blue (cyan) produce violet. For example, if you add more red than yellow, you get a reddish orange, and if you add more yellow than red, you get a yellowish orange.


Eye contains two kinds of receptors, rods and cones
RODS-convey shades of colour, CONES-allow the brain to perceive colour.
Three types of cones, first is sensitive to red-orange light, second green light and third blue-violet light
Single cone is stimulated the brain perceives the corresponding colour, if are green cones are stimulated we see green, if are red  cones are stimulated we see red, if both are simultaneously stimulated we see yellow.
-The eye cannot differentiate between spectral yellow and some combination of red and green, the same effect accounts for our perception of cyan, magenta and the other in-between spectral colours.
-Because of this pychological response the eye can be 'fooled' into seeing the full range of visible colours through the proportionate adjustment of just three  colours, red green and blue.

Thursday, 12 January 2012



Give a simple introduction the history of typography
• Introduce the six main classifications of type • Introduce some famous type faces and their
related connotations
• Introduce the metalinguistic function of typography

TYPOGRAPHY=Meta- communication, Paralinguistic's, Kinesics.
Type Classifications
Humanist, Old Style, Transitional,  Modern Slab Serif (Egyptian)  Sans Serif 

The “age of print” began around 1450

Gutenberg’s printing press    
Gutenberg Gothic Script 1450
Gutenberg was the first European to use movable type printing, in around 1439. Among his many contributions to printing are: the invention of a process for mass-producing movable type; the use of oil-based ink; and the use of a wooden printing press similar to the agricultural screw presses of the period. His truly epochal invention was the combination of these elements into a practical system which allowed the mass production of printed books and was economically viable for printers and readers alike. Gutenberg's method for making type is traditionally considered to have included a type metal alloy and a hand mould for casting type. //wikipedia

-first type family, from Venice
-this became the first italic font form
The painter and designer Geofroy Tory believed that the proportions of the alphabet should reflect the ideal human form, he wrote: "the cross stroke covers the mans organ of generation, to signify that modesty and chastity are required, before all else, in those who seek acquaintances with well-shapped letters."

Modern Typeface
known as Didone typefaces which were designed by Giambattista Bodoni
Didone represents elegance, class, fashion designers commonly use Didone

Slab serif / Egyptian 1800's:
product of industrialisation
breaks the rules of hierarchies

Example of Herbert Bayer’s sans- serif typeface- Bayer, 1925
• A unicameral type - all text to be lower case, (to ditch capitals)
Gill Sans is a sans-serif typeface designed by Eric Gill.
The original design appeared in 1926 when Douglas Cleverdon opened a bookshop in his home town of Bristol, where Gill painted the fascia over the window in sans-serif capitals that would later be known as Gill Sans. In addition, Gill had sketched a design for Cleverdon, intended as a guide for him to make future notices and announcements.
Gill further developed it into a complete font family after Stanley Morison commissioned the development of Gill Sans to combat the families of Erbar, Futura and Kabel which were being launched in Germany during the latter 1920s. Gill Sans was later released in 1928 by Monotype Corporation.
• Different Type families to explore – Humanist / Old Style / Transitional /Modern / Slab Serif / Sans Serif
• Remember that type communicates visually and is not just a vehicle for