William Holman Hunt: The Hireling Shepherd (1852)
-This was described as modern art at the time, especially the use of colour.
Modern- progression, improvement.
Modern world-Paris was the most modern radical city.
1700-process of modernity began. Shift from rural farming enviroment to more industrial- trains, invention of telephone, cinema-new types of distractions.
Paris Exposition Universalle 1900 Trottoir Roullant- cultural race, who can be the most modern city? Paris-London? Eiffel Tower-fundamentally modern.
ENLIGHTENMENT-period in the late 18th century when science/philosophy made leaps.
Modernity-agree on national time.
Paris-1850's on-a new Paris. Haussman (city architect) redesigns Paris. Centre becomes an expensive and upper class zone. No accident that Paris became the most modern city in the world.
-City becomes a subject for art. Rather than painting individuals (no longer being the main subject)they are standing back watching the city.
Society modernises art: not the other way around.
Degas - Absinthe Drinker (1876)
Portrays a grim display of the modern life- modern world is so rubbish I have to drown my sorrows.
Technology becoming a barrier from us and our real experiences - Kauserpanorama 1883.
-People willing to pay to see pictures and photographs that they could go out and see themselves - technology fetish.
Modernity-invention of cinema!
Photography-potentially making paintings obsilete- new world allows you to look at the world in a variety of different ways.
MODERNISM IN DESIGN:
-Form follows function
-Internationalism- a language of design that could be understood on an international basis.
paris-becomes an expensive and upper class zone
Paris 1900- most radical and progressive city in the world, the 'most modern city'
Bauhaus cutlery set -example of pure modernist design
truth to materials,simple geometric forms appropriate to the material used
Bauhaus, was a school in Germany that combined crafts and the fine arts, and was famous for the approach to design that it publicized and taught. It operated from 1919 to 1933. At that time the German term Bauhaus, literally "house of construction" stood for "School of Building".
The Bauhaus school was founded by Walter Gropius in Weimar. In spite of its name, and the fact that its founder was an architect, the Bauhaus did not have an architecture department during the first years of its existence. Nonetheless it was founded with the idea of creating a 'total' work of art in which all arts, including architecture would eventually be brought together. The Bauhaus style became one of the most influential currents in Modernist architecture and modern design. The Bauhaus had a profound influence upon subsequent developments in art, architecture, graphic design, interior design, industrial design, and typography.
The school existed in three German cities (Weimar from 1919 to 1925, Dessau from 1925 to 1932 and Berlin from 1932 to 1933), under three different architect-directors: Walter Gropius from 1919 to 1928, Hannes Meyer from 1928 to 1930 and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe from 1930 until 1933, when the school was closed by its own leadership under pressure from the Nazi regime.
'Modernity' 1750-1960- social and cultural experience. Modern suggests novelty and improvement.
Modernism, in its broadest definition, is modern thought, character, or practice. More specifically, the term describes the modernist movement in the arts, its set of cultural tendencies and associated cultural movements, originally arising from wide-scale and far-reaching changes to Western society in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In particular the development of modern industrial societies and the rapid growth of cities, followed then by the horror of World War I, were among the factors that shaped Modernism. Related terms are modern,modernist, contemporary, and postmodern.