Monday, 15 October 2012


Freud, Edward Bernays
Unconscious/sub conscious/repressed desires
OEDIPUS COMPLEX- Castration anxiety, penis envy (sign of a sexual power) boy fears this because it will represent a lack of sexual power and power in society.

  • ID - biological instincts (eat, sleep) primal urges, human emotions, drive- marshalled, policed and controlled by super ego
  • EGO- conscious
  • SUPER EGO- manic, controlling voice (rational and irrational, as much about repressed feelings, uses methods: shame, guilt and self pity
OEDIPUS MYTH:  Son of king of troy, king goes to an oracle/fortune teller- he is told the son will over throw him, kill him and take his crown.  As a new born baby Oedipus is banished to another country.  He grows up rebellious and becomes a warrior.. He overthrows kingdom, kills king, steals his wife, has sex with his mother - unknowingly.  when he finds out he blinds himself by stabbing his eyes

the emergence of American brand culture, deliberate tactics, to control the public and their desires
Bernays manipulated the masses by satisfying ones inner self desires

HAPPINESS MACHINE (PART ONE) Freuds ideas accepted as part of society now. psychotherapy ball held every year, frauds ideas were hated, a threat to peoples control (examining feelings)
WILSON- hero of the masses
Edward Bernays originated the idea, not just purchasing something, engaging emotional content to the product

Danger of over production (flourished after the war)
we must shape new mentality in America- mans desires must over shadow mans needs

Bernays brings psychological theory, job to create a new type of customer, how to appeal to the masses successfully 
Product placement in films, organised fashion shows in department stores with celebrities modelling

1927- a journalist wrote a change has come, a growing wave of consumerism.  Bernays says ordinary people should buy shares from banks he represented - thousands took his advice.  Bernays encourages thirty four celebrities to go to the White House, first time politics was combined with public relations.

Frueds work in America effected/ fascinated the work of journalists in 1930's.
1920's Bernays writes a series of books
1928- president came to power who agreed with Bernays economic progress - emerge in the 1920's

Manipulating desires, act of persuasion, macho man, free roaming across the ranges, shooting, cowboy etc.

Code of practice in Britain with tobacco are no longer allowed to e associated with
  • glamour
  • sports
  • success in business
  • masculinity and femininity 
  • Also advertisements should not be sen to actively persuade people to start smoking
Saatchi and Saatchi used Freudian methods of psychoanalysis in their ads- price, life style aspirations etc.
Silk has feminine connotations that could be considered in a negative way.  Silk cut are a low tar cigarette and the danger is the brand gets associated with weakness and femininity.
rationally smoking will kill you but irrationally we still smoke

  • oral fixation
  • oedipus complex
  • penis envy
1983 advertisements, cut silk, symbolic association, male domination, knife slitting the silk
References Hitchcocks 'Psycho' - murder, violence, cigarettes are getting sold as association with good looking movie star getting stabbed in the shower: 

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