Popular culture - a lot to do with class system, class is key to understanding, how the ruling class rule the working class through popular culture. Culture vs popular culture.
1867 - first person to start writing about it
Arnoldism - bourgeois defence of culture against working class threat
Frankfurt school - mass culture, cultural industry, maintains social authority, social drug depoliticises the working class.
CITIES AND FILM
different notions of the city as you could see them through history, space of the city is used differently, city something that was used by people to being something that controls people
The city is modernity
One view, the city is your stage OR the city as this dense, inhuman space of factories and machines that are not conducive to a happy life, a positive life.
The city is post modernism
Individual acts can redefine the city
space of consumerism, space of performance, a designed space
SUBCULTURES AND STYLE
minority vs majority
neglected by mainstream
gain a sense of identity
subculture language of style
is sub culture redundant ?
D. Hebdige - incorporation - ideological commodity
19th century - artists/poets as celebrities
20th - Warhol
21st - Anyone can be famous
Clark Gable vs Lady Gaga
Celebrity as product of consumer culture